In the introductory part of his study the author writes about the 55-year history of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (CPCz) from its foundation in 1921 up to the present. He underlines the struggle of the CPCz against the capitalist social order under the bourgeois Czechoslovak Republic, in the period of Nazi occupation, and in the first years after liberation. He highlights its care for Socialist construction in Czechoslovakia after the February victory in 1948. In the main part of his study the author points out that the CPCz, during the 55 years of its existence, has paid great attention to the schools, education and the teaching profession. In the period of the bourgeois Czechoslovak Republic it exposed the class, anti-progressive and antipopular character of the bourgeois school and education and campaigned for a uniform state school system; and, especially after the February victory, it devoted itself, with extraordinary care, to building up a Socialist school and education and developing socialist pedagogy. The author shows how progressive demands were voiced at the congresses, conferences and sessions of the Central Committee of the CPCz, expressing the interests of the broad masses of the working population in the field of schools and education.