In this article the author analyses some general questions on the theory and methodology of military education in socialist countries. He emphasizes the necessity to form a theoretical system of military education. He explains the subject of military education and relations of the military education toward the general education. The main attention has been paid to the analysis of the conception of military education from the standpoint of an educationalist. In connection with this he explains the educational meaning of the concept military education. At the same time he analyses and characterizes the fundamental structural components of the education of soldiers: a) developmental persistent or tenacity of purpose, intentionality of educational and military influence, b) relationship between the military personal and the instructors, c) relationship between intentional military and educational influence and the effect of it on the personality of soldiers in their mind and behaviours, d) the development of the soldier himself as a person which would imply a wider educational influence then could have been attained only by a military one. In the concluding part of the article the author explains the fundamental components of military education. The main kind of military education is the educational process in the army. Another kind of military education is the training in various practical military activities. If the training in military activities is carefully directed towards the realization of military aims then it becomes an important part of military education. The third kind of military education is the educational influence of the military environment, especially of military regime. The military environment can become an organic part of the military education on condition that its influence is directed toward the military educational aims and used for them. In addition to this, however, political and cultural aspects of military education must play their part.