The aims of education form a complex system of various relations (they are general but on a different level; the relations between the whole and the parts of it must be considered as well as the final aims are to be differed from the aims of special stages; the aims are determined from various aspects). An analysis of the aims of education brings following problem: How to determine and define the aims of education. There are two main approaches as the most important ones how to solve this question: a philosophical, theoretical way and, especially in the 20th century empirical methods. The study deals with the relations between these two ways and analyses both of them. Finally it contains an outline of the present state of the research concerning this problem.