This article is devoted to starting-point methodological problems of literary education as a specific field of the general theory of education. First of all, the author deals with the question of the connection between the research into a partial educational field and the solution of the problem of education as a whole, analyses the mutual relationship between the part and the whole, as a relationship in which special questions are subordinated to general ones on principle, but, at the same time, the general postulate is questioned wherever it is at variance with scientifically proved facts of a special nature. The theory of literary education, however, the author points out, has mostly been handled empirically without formulating the basic problems and methodologically appropriate processes. The author further finds that the starting-point problems of a scientifically conceived theory of education are, in the first place, the question of the social significance of literary education for the development of personality, the question of relationship between educational and specialist literary-scientific considerations, the question of the system of literary education and its relationship to the other stimuli exercising influence on the pupil in this direction. The author deals in greater detail with the problem as to when the aesthetic approach to literature and literary erudition can be regarded as appropriate to the general development of the pupil’s personality, when it fulfils its basic anthropological task an can become a permanent quality of a personality even at a time when the personality will no longer be under the influence of systematic literary education. He comes to the conclusion that in this direction it is essential for the theory of literary education to find, above all, such processes and gradual steps as would enable the practice to fulfil its mission in accordance with the gradual development of the pupil’s personality, i. e. in the proper sense of pedagogy and not to, make literary education Just adapt and reduce e. g. facts of literary science, history atc.