In the introductory chapter the author defines the process used in his study. He starts by mentioning generally applicable processes (deduction from general methodology, analysis of the existing works as a certain way of the inductive process) and points out their respective advantages and disadvantages. He himself chooses the logico historical analysis. He proceeds from the existence of two types of approach to the educational phenomena: empirical and logico historical. He sees a perspective in getting over the onesidedness of each of these two types of approach. He comes to the conclusion that both the empirical process and the logico-historical analysis have their place in pedagogical research if adequately used. Empirical research has to be based on a general synthetic conception of education with the results of the empirical research contributing to the development of synthesis. On the basis of a brief analysis the author comes to the conclusion that education consists in shaping man’s relationship to the world, in which the child itself takes an active part. From that he passes on to some ideas about the system of pedagogy. The necessity of creating this system results from the above. In the system of pedagogy he believes the category of aims and means to be of great importance. He suggests the following division: 1. Theoretical conception of education including the problem of what education is and what branch of science deals with it. 2. The problems of the aims and contents of education. 3. The problem of the means of education. This division is static, of course. Besides that it is necessary to investigate the dynamics of the educational process, i. e. the way the aims and contents are being realised with the use of certain means in education.