In the theory of moral education a onesided norm and undevelopmental approach towards moral qualities of personality should be avoided, i. e. to start with a research into pedagogical substance of these qualities. It is possible to investigate the pedagogical substance of moral qualities and to analyse them in order to recognize their structure and process. The article presents an analyse of the structure and process of forming conscious discipline. A systematic valuation of a disciplined (moral) conduct and of an undisciplined (licentions) behaviour plays a significant role in directing the process of forming conscious discipline and other moral qualities. This valuation has been often connected with educational awarding and punishing. A research performed at the Czechoslovak army was concerned, first of all, with the motivation function of punishments and awards. Results (effects) of an educational influence through punishment and award have been investigated with the mind and behaviour of the persons under examination. The author generalizes some methodological information on given research, namely that knowledge which bring about a performance of analogical research into the theory or moral education of the youth and the adults.