(CZ) Mimoumělecké oblasti estetické výchovy ve vyučování
(EN) Non-Artistic Spheres of Aesthetic Education at the Basic School
Autor / Author: Holešovský, F.
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This study deals with the ways of solving the problems of aesthetic education alms and the implementation of these aims under socialism. It deals with that sphere of aesthetic education which is not being sufficiently tackled by the contemporary school, i. e. the training of an aesthetic relationship to reality other than the arts. The author divides the aesthetic relationship to reality into there areas: aesthetic relationship to work, to the nature and aesthetic relationships to ethics and society. He touches upon the analogy between the aesthetic and the ethical spheres in the life of the individual and of society; he analyses the teaching norms and the theoretical materials supplementing them form the viewpoint of aesthetic education aims. The most important problem involved is undoubtedly the possibility of a concrete definition of the objectives of aesthetic education and the verification to what extent these objectives have been attained as a result of educational work. The study contains an attempt to determine the qualities and aesthetic viewpoints, measurable by a system of psychologico-biological, pedagogical and working tests as regards aesthetic relationship to work; it investigates the contribution and the functions of various subjects in the curriculum in the training of aesthetic relationship to the nature; it, determines the qualities of an aesthetic relationship to the nature and suggests methods of ascertaining them. Lastly, he deals with the training of an aesthetic relationship with regard to society, concerning man’s behaviour and actions with ethical and social motivation. The educational process aiming at the realisation of an aesthetic relationship to reality needs further organizational forms in addition to those provided by the contemporary educational system. Of the three, above-mentioned areas of aesthetic relationship to reality, the area which is the most difficult to verify is that of ethical aesthetic relationships. In his conclusions the author of the study arrives at the following findings. a) In the area of the aesthetic relationship to work it is necessary to investigate the share in the development of physical and mental capacities, the significance of transfer between mental and physical activities, and the extension of the aesthetic relationship to a particular activity to the broader area of work. b) The educational practice and theory ought to make better use of the teaching of the features and qualities of creativeness, which provide us, at the same time, with a certain base for determining the stage achieved in the development of the aesthetic relationship to work. c) Of particular significance for the development of the aesthetic relationship to reality is the tendency to extend the aesthetic relationship from one narrower area to other areas and a broader area and creating a balance between individual, group and collective activities. d) In the area of ethical-aesthetic education it is desirable to apply more emphatically the individual social practice of pupils and by dealing with it and analysing it, to record the behaviour of pupils outside the sphere of school activities. e) The category of educational aims can be exactly determined und concretely defined only in connection with educational means and methods. The study is concerned, on the one hand, with problems of aesthetic pedagogy, on the other hand, with problems of the curriculum theory. Its suggestions and conclusions are important for adjusting the content of educational work, as well as for the process of the integration of education.
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