The author sets herself the task of indicating some of the ways of approach, little employed so far, to the complex of problems involved in shaping moral qualities. She gives a critical appraisal of the current publications on the theory of moral training, and, on the basis of the Marxist philosophical and psychological conception of the personality, which was often neglected in the past years, she presents an analysis of the present day official conception of moral training in the Czechoslovak and especially in the Soviet pedagogy. She concludes that this conception is no longer in keeping with the current psychological conception of learning. Neither is it in keeping with the conclusions, formulated by psychology, about the unity of personality, the qualities of character and the shaping of theses qualities. The article further deals with the problem of a new approach to the questions of moral training, especially the questions of motivation, the formation of the personality’s inner attitudes, the organisation of activities and ethical experiences of pupils. The author discusses the complex relationships between the formation of a system of fixed personal motives and the ethical experiences of the pupils. She formulates a hypothesis: the understanding and generalizing of moral experience is a complicated process consisting essentially in the fact that a personality analyses the general sense and the moral significance of certain concrete situations it finds itself in and takes up a certain attitude to it. Such realization and generalisation of individual ethical experiences, including the realisation and appreciation of the motive of one’s actions, probably contributes to the generalisation of situation motives and thereby to the formation of a system of fixed personal motives. In conclusion, the author points out some aspects of investigating the specificness of intellectual and moral training.