The author deals with some partial theoretical and methodological questions concerning the study of developing changes in the psychic activities and behaviour of man, taking into account the question of relationships between the psychic development and learning; he assumes that the clarification of these questions is one of the essential pre-requisites for a further study of conditions, means and methods of a rational control of the psychic development of man and a purposeful control of the process of developing socially desirable psychic qualities of the personality in the educational process. The author arrives at the following main conclusions:
1. Man (representing an immensely complexly structured and functionally organised, relatively isolated open information system) reacting to the influences of his environment, affects, in turn, through his activities and behaviour his environment, changes it, whereby changing also the influence of this environment on himself. In the process of inter-action between the developing human organism and individual components of his continuously changing natural and social environment there arise external and internal contradictions which are the source of the continuous development of the organism as a system: this development has the character of a dialectical, self-controlled ergodic process.
2. Man develops psychically in the process of learning. This process is determined by the degree of the structural and functional development of man’s nervous system, the nature of the stimuli affecting the nervous system from the external and internal environment of the organism and by quantitative and qualitative characteristics (inborn and acquired) of the system of controlling programs of the psychic activities and the behaviour of man.
3. The process of learning, in which inborn controlling programs of the psychic activities and behaviour are being moulded and modified, while new, acquired ones are being formed, the process in which the psychic qualities of the personality are being developed and shaped, is considered by the author to be the decisive, determining factor in the psychic development of man.