The author tries to get to the bottom of the curriculum questions. He identifies two basic models. First one called “means-end model” rests on the assumption that the educational activity is first of all a goaloriented. Then the relevant means to achieve the objectives are chosen. Alternative model takes as its starting point the fact that any educational situation contains two basic elements: the pupil and the content of instruction. The central task in any form of curriculum, planning is to establish the right interaction between them. This model is called “encounter model”. The author confronts both models and their development in 20th century in the USA and Germany. He proves that the educational situation where the encounter of pupil and the object as an original phenomenon of the school is realised.