(CZ) Reforma školy a její důsledky pro pojetí praktické přípravy učitelů
(EN) The school reform and its consequences for the conception of the teacher’s practical preparation
Autor / Author: Solfronk, J.
Klíčová slova / Key words: Příprava učitelů, pedagogická praxe, klinický semestr, učitelské dovednosti, komunikativní dovednosti, dovednosti hodnocení a diagnózy, dovednosti organizace a řízení
Článek se zabývá pojetím praktické přípravy učitelů v souvislosti s připravovanou školskou reformou. Poukazuje se na nezbytnost úzkého propojení pedagogické a psychologické teorie s praktickou činností studentů ve škole. Řešení spatřuje v projektu tzv. klinického semestru, který je organizován jako multisciplinární blok teorie a souběžné probíhající blok školní praxe, vedené týmem odborníků z fakulty a učitelů škol praxe. V článku jsou uvedeny záměry semestru, jeho obsah i organizace.
The teachers’ profession includes the compound of the subject expertness and the educational compound by which the educational functioning of a teacher is meant. The educational compound is in the foreground of the interest of the educational and psychological researches as it has been confirmed that the positive educational functioning is of a significant influence so far the pupils’ learning activities are concerned. For that reason it is necessary to pay an increased attention to it in the field of the future teachers’ education. At the pedagogical faculty of Charles University in Prague a conception and a project of the so called clinical term have been elaborated the sense of which being the improving of the practical preparation of the students in this direction. The clinical term is based in the idea of a narrow putting= through of the educational and psychological theories with purpusefull chosen teachers’ activities at schools. During that term the students go through a block of the theoretical preparation which is alternated with the block of practical preparation at schools. The theoretical block is aimed at the teaching of some chosen thematic complexes of a multidisciplinary character which include the following contents: the learner, the communication at school, the teacher, the organization and management, the educational and psychological research methods, the school as a social and educational community. The center of the practical preparation block is the training in the following elementary instructional skills groups: the communication skills, the skill how to evaluate and make diagnostics and the skill of organizing and managing the instructional and extra-instructional activities of the children at school. The theoretical and practical preparations interchange in week blocks and are controlled by well chosen experts of the faculty and by practicing teachers at schools where the practice is in progress. The students’ participation in choosing the subjects and types of the teachers’ training activities are assumed A certain part of the block is assigned for consultations which serve partly for the checking of the course of the term and partly for the correction of both the practical and theoretical blocks according to the needs the students feel, and the de' mands both of the faculty workers and the practicing teachers.
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