The study discusses the interrelations between didactics and pedagogics in the wdrk of J. A. Comenius within historical context. The attention is drawn to the fact that the conception of Comenius’s works on education as mere utilitarian didactical ones “ as they have been received by many writers of the Enlightenment period – does not correspond to the original intention of Comenius. Confronting didactical endeavours of the time with Comenian concept of didactics based on the pansophical universalism, the author explains the specificity of pansophical knowledge and education which embraced intellectual, moral, social, religious aspects and were intended to prepare emendatio rerum humanarum. It is conditioned by the right understanding of the interrelations, namely between theoria - praxis - chresis; everybody has to develop ability to be able to answer the questions quid, perquid, ad quid adhibendum. The role of education in the centre of pansophic and panorthotic endeavours is connected with the fact how the didactics becomes the pedagogics.