This contribution is devoted to the Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education (RVP ZV) and its importance in the process of transformation of the Czech school. It deals specifically with aspects of educational policy, curricular reforms and the methodology of school reform. From the point of view of current educational policy, the RVP ZV is an important tool for the implementation of curricular reform on a nation-wide basis, since it formulates the requirements of the state by defining the basic framework in the form of goals, content and anticipated outputs at the end of basic education, which then become the starting-point for the schools themselves to create their own educational programmes with an eye to local conditions and specific needs. The two-level and participative concept of curricula helps to decentralise the school system, increasing the autonomy of schools by transferring from the state to the school a large part of decision-making competence and responsibility for the quality of education. From the point of view of educational reform the RVP ZV opens up space for the application of the principle of „reform from below“, for support for changes directly at schools themselves, an approach with benefits confirmed by experience abroad. This, however, makes greater demands on the professionalism of teachers and on the school as a „learning organisation“ with an emphasis on joint creation and collaboration within schools and between schools. The author also reflects on the importance of the RVP ZV from the perspective of curricular reform. It entails a fundamental change in the concept of basic education, the functions and key goals of the school, the concept of quality school teaching and learning strategy. Specifically there is an important transformation in the hierarchy of the goals of education - instead of the traditional triad of knowledge, skills and habits with the stress on memorisation of a great deal of information in complete form, the key goal is now considered to be multi-sided cultivation of the personality of the child, integral development in the cognitive field (not just by acquiring knowledge but also/above all the acquisition of tools for acquiring knowledge, the development of intellectual operations, especially the higher levels of thought) and in the field of competences, attitudes and values. Changes in the content of school education (anthropological approaches, stress on the integration of the material taught) are also important, as are impulses for a new didactic conception of teaching. The author emphasises that the crucial factor for the attainment of the stated goals will be the quality of the processes of education - quality communication between teacher and pupils, school and parents, between teachers, a quality social climate in the class and whole school, active methods and strategies of leaching, and appropriate ways of assessing pupils etc.