Page: 151-171 Author: Man, F.; Mareš, J. Key words:
In accordance with the theory of achievement motivation elaborated mainly by J. W. Aktinson and H. Heckhausen, it can be expected that the theory of flow and optimal experience (cf. mainly the channel model), i.e. concordance between challenges and skills, will apply to, or fit, only those subjects where there is a tendency to achieve success. Unlike subjects with a predominant tendency to achieve success, subjects with a tendency to avoid failure will experience anxiety (worry). Man and Stuchlíková (in prep.) have tried to solve this problem in experimental conditions. These psychologists dealt with the compatibility between two approaches (flow and achievement motivation) via the computer-game Roboguard. Under experimentally controlled conditions, all parameters of the game and the situation were kept constant, apart from the difficulty of the level the participants had to play. Flow was assessed with the Czech version of the Flow Short Scale (FKS; Rheinberg, Vollmeyer and Engeser, 2002). There were five levels of difficulty in the computer game. FKS consists of the following subscales: (1) Smooth and Automatic Running; (2) Absorbtion, and (3) Worry. The relationships between FKS and Approval Seeking, Goal Tendency and Task Orientation were assessed by the Czech version of the AGT. Many problems connectcd with flow and achievement motivation are explained on the basis of the „Prinzip der Passung“ (appropriateness) (Rheinberg; cf. e.g. in Czech Rcpka, 2002). Only task-orientation (as used by J. Nicholls) and Learning Goal Tendency- LG from AGT should be correlated with flow. We have not assumed that performance goal tendencies, i.e. (I) gain approval and avoid rejection from the teachcrs and parents (Pgapp), and (2) want to get good grades and advance (Pgadv) will be associated with the flow experience. „We have also emphasized the main role of individual referencenorm orientation in this context (i.e. intraindividual comparison).