Page: 270-286 Author: Lepková, K.; Heyting, F. Key words:
The use of intelligence tests was one of the most discussed educational issues in the first decades of the 20lh century. Educationalists in the new established Czechoslovak state engaged in these debates as well, mostly in view of the envisaged educational reforms. The scientific discourse about the educational use of intelligence tests not only reflects ideas about what intelligence exactly is and how it could be influenced by means of education, but also pictures views of an ideal society to which education and especially the use of the tests could contribute. In our project we particularly pay attention to the reconstruction of such social ideals as were implicitly considered as foundations of scientific discussions about the use of intelligence tests in Czechoslovakia before World War II.