(CZ) Vědy o výchově na stránkách pedagogiky (K 50. výročí vzniku časopisu)
(EN) Educational science on the pages of pedagogika (for the 50™ anniversary of the journal‘s foundation)
Autor / Author: Váňová, R.
Klíčová slova / Key words: časopis Pedagogika, vývoj pedagogického časopisu, vývoj pedagogiky v Československu
Článek charakterizuje padesátiletý vývoj časopisu Pedagogika od jeho založení v roce 1951 do konce roku 1999. Sleduje, jak se pod vlivem společensko-politických podmínek v uplynulém padesátiletí vyvíjelo československé, později české pedagogické myšleni.
The Pedagogika journal was founded in 1951. It was supposed to reflect the new political situation in Czechoslovakia after 1948. From the beginning it was clearly ideologically and methodologically defined. It was orientated to the Soviet Union and the countries of the Socialist bloc, and acknowledged Marxism-Leninism as the only scientific basis. In the first phase of its existence it was published by the Ministry of Education (!), from the mid-Fifties to the beginning of the Nineties by the Comenius Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, and from 1994 it has been pub lished by the Charles University Faculty of Education. The Fifties. The first step taken by the new journal was to settle accounts with the prewar reform movement represented by V. Příhoda, which promoted and tested out the idea of a world reform of educational theory. The movement was condemned - not on its real merits or demerits but politically and ideologically according to a prc-termined scenario - by means of a so-called “discussion” in which some members of the movement appeared as critics of their own endeavours. A positive programme began in Pedagogika approximately from 1953, when O. Chlup became editor. Under Chlup the journal published the results of research projects on teaching processes and teaching matter, the testing out of textbooks, researches on discipline, methodological studies, and study of the deficient. A great deal was published in the field of Comenius studies and the history of education. The temporary thaw in the political climate that followed the repudiation of the cult of personality in the USSR made it possible for the journal to follow professional developments in the capitalist world. The Sixties. The development of education was prefigured by the 22nd Congress of the CPSU, which emphasised the importance of science for the building of communism, and the analysis of the state of educational sciences carried out by the ideological committee of the central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party (Autumn 1964). As a result there were major methodological changes in education and the introduction of new research and methodological approaches (cybernetics, modelling, factor analysis, mathematical linguistics, programming and so forth). The development of educational methodology led to a large number of theoretical and theoretical-empirical analyses of the themes of traditional fields (didactics, theory of education), but also some fields previously forgotten in this country and some that were entirely new (teacher training, education economics, comparative education, sociology of education). Programming curriculum became an entirely new theme in didactics. It is certain that at the end of the Sixties Czechoslovak educational theory had overcome its previous isolation and was keeping step with world developments. The Seventies. The extremely unfavourable conditions of political normalisation (ideological pressure, the exclusion of many people, the curtailment of contact with the world) led to an unevenness in the development of educational disciplines. The official line supported the theory of education, especially education in world view and education outside school. The results achieved went beyond political proclamation on rarely. In contrast didactics, pedeutology, and educational psychology underwent marked development. The theory of primary education, the theory of professional training and the theory of adult education emerged as independent fields. There were attempts to constitute school management and social pedagogy as independent fields. Comparative education almost withered away. The Eighties. The atmosphere of normalisation continued into the first half of the decade, but Soviet perestroika brought a change in terms of critical openness, a freer choice of theme and wider range of authors cited. As is traditional, it was didactics that developed most intensively and at this period it was strongly enhanced by the emergence of a psychological approach (the psychology of computer studies became a new subject) Pedeutology, the history of education, and school management began to develop with dynamism. Social pedagogy, educational economics and comparative education were stagnating. The Nineties. The political revolution in November 1989 brought Pedagogika political and ideological independence although - as a result of the abolition of the Comenius Educational Institute - its very existence was threatened. The years 1990-1993 were a period of self-examination, the search for a new profile and efforts to keep the journal in operation. With intensive efforts at reform underway in the country, substantial attention was directed to systems of education abroad and methodological problems. In the last five years the journal has acquired a new owner and conception. Research reports and suchlike are balanced by articles on the philosophy of education, and overview studies and monothematic issues have been introduced. The published articles testify to teachers’s new approach to education and training (“outputs” in the order - values, experience, activity, knowledge) and on the new focus on research on the school, teacher and pupil. Unfortunately the development of educational fields is not even, and there are disquieting shortcomings in the development of the theory of education, social pedagogy, comparative education and the history of education.
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