In this article the enlightening of the beginnings of the scientific and research activities in the area of our educational theory and practice since the half of the 20th century is the question. This scientific activity anchored in empirical researches was provoked by the need to reveal the causes of failures which, were shown in the actual teacher’s acdvity as well as in the pupil’s learning activity. It was found that a significant cause of these troubles was the superfluity of the teaching materials which kept the teacher away from his or her creativity — and the learners from acquiring command of the subject matter with comprehension. Otakar Chlup’s conception of the so called "basic" teaching material was of most significant help when investigating the problems mentioned above. O. Chlup had rahered a number of workers from different branches of science in the effort not only to find the reasons of overburfening the teachers and learners by an always increasing amocunt of the subject matter but also to elaborate a well thought out, educationally and psychologically well founded didactization of the subject matter in the teaching plans, teaching schedules, textbooks and other teaching aids. Thus an always broader road for the development of the scientific and research activities was opened, in whose results the complex picture of our educational system was shown significantly as well as the need of solving its reform on scientific foundations.