In the study the author’s own delimitation of the concepts endowment and talent are presented. The author gives here a brief survey of opinions concerning the problem of abilities — to start with Galton, Spearman, Binet, Teplov, and to end with the contemporary conceptions presented by Sternberg, Renzulli, Bogojavlenska. Further on the author puts the questions of the abilities development into relations with the problems of emocionality and of the socially psychological aspects in the development of the endowment and the talent. He presents a critical evaluation of some forms and methods of the gifted learners’ education. In the conclusion of the publication the author formulates some recommendations which a well crafted care of the talents development should take in consideration.