(CZ) Perspektivní orientace jako komponenta rozvoje osobnosti v sovětské pedagogické a psychologické literatuře
(EN) The perspective orientation as a component of the development of a personality in the Soviet educational and psychological literatures
Autor / Author: Pavelková, I.
Klíčová slova / Key words:
The essay is devoted to significant and actual questions connected with the developing of such presuppositions of a personality that would make it possible for an individual to cope with his or her future in an active way. The reserves are being looked for in developing a perspective orientation of an individual above all.
In this area the contribution of pedagogics and the pedagogical psychology is divided into several parts. The first part is devoted to the ideas of Makarenko, the founder of a great tradition in this field of the Soviet pedagogics. The second part is devoted to those psychologists who solve the problem of the „life career“ in a realtion to forming and developing a personality. In the foreground problems related to developing a perspective orientation in the conscience of an individual as to a presumption of a first-rate project of one’s life-career appear. In another part of the essay attention is paid to those Soviet authors who elaborate the ontogenetic point of view of the development of the motivation sphere of a personality.
The works of those authors not only attributed to the solving of the psychological mechanism of the future time orientation significantly, but their emphasis on the close mutual relation of the inner and outer conditions of the motivation aspects are also of substantial importance for the work of schools. In the Soviet literature problems of the perspective orientation are not solved only on the common level. They are specialized into a number of actual and concrete topics to which the last part is devoted. Here are some examplex: The perspective orientation from the point of view of the development abilities, moral education, interconnection with the professional orientation etc. Especially those Soviet works are very useful in which problems in the frame of the school are the object of reflecting. They confirm the necessity to develop a presumption of the future in the pupils’ minds in two respects; firstably in the area of "anticipation" the future in the sense of anticipation and structuralization the future events, and secondly the mastering of a certain strategy of the forming of goals which could become a base for an optimal goal structure formation of the pupil. Thus the pupils’ relation to the future can become a spring-board for young people’s drafting and realizing the plans for their future activities.
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