The paper deals with metacognitive processes that accompany reading. A description of metacognitive processes according to phases of reading is presented. Before reading the reader sets the objectives of reading, in the course of reading the reader predicts the content of next sections of the text and monitors reading. After finishing reading the reader checks if the objectives of reading have been achieved.
A number of research findings is presented on relationship between reading efficiency and metacognitive awareness of the reader. Not all elements of metacognitive processes directly determine reading efficiency. Good and bad readers differ in utilizing adequate or inadequate metacognitive elements. Younger pupils’ metacognitive processes are rather weak so they cannot influence reading. Dissatisfaction with young pupils’ reading efficiency made it neccessary to design special programmes aimed at fostering metacognitive processes of the child. Two such programmes are described, one designed by V. V. Shvayko from Tomsk University, the other one by A. S. Palincsar and A.L Brown from University of Illinois.