(CZ) Od programovaného učení a vyučovacích strojů k počítačům a druhé gramotnosti
(EN) From Programmed Instruction and Teaching Machines to Computers and 2nd Literacy
Autor / Author: Kulič, V.
Klíčová slova / Key words:
In the period of the Scientific and Technological Revolution with its increasing demands on vocational qualification as as on general education, ways are being sought to increase effectiveness and capacity of the educational process consisting, on the one hand, in consistently applying the achievements of present-day psychology, cybernetics and other fields, and on the other hand, in using modern educational technology, especially computer technology. Even though programmed learning and the teaching machine movement in its original form may nowadays be regarded as “things of the past”, their positive legacy is still valid; Learning is to be an active process in which a significant role is played by feedback information about its results; a really effective learning process is “wellguided” process in a carefully thought-out series of learning and cognitive activities. The factor of guidance and control can be icated objective by the use of technical devices.
It has been evident from the very start that computer systems can contribute to the realization of more sophisticated models of the “controlled learning process”. Whereas the use of large computers with terminal network was very expensive and complicated, the microprocessor technology has brought a revolutionary change. The new situation of “automated learning” is characterized by new educational, psychological, ergonomical aspects: Pedagogy is facing the task of delimiting a new school subjects together with a new goal category — the so-called 2nd literacy meaning the ability to communicate and work with a computer. With the help of the psychology of learning and teaching it is supposed to provide “software” for computers and to determine their integration in the educational system as a whole. It is becoming a theoretical task as well as a real task for psychology to follow the formative impact of the computer — as new environment of an active intellect and a place of confrontation of human and artificial intellect — on the development of the personality of man both as an individual and as useful member of a socially and technically developed society.
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