The effort at modernizing our educational system requires an exact analysis of all pedagogical means, among which a didactic picture is insubstitutionable in its important function.
From an analysis of the present-day conception of a didactic picture used in the process of education there follows a lack of terminological uniformity and an insufficient definition of the concept as well as the function of this educational means. The present paper suggests an integration of didactic visual media and a generalization of their problems in the concept of a ‘didactic picture’, which makes it possible to take a systemic approach to the problems of a picture used in the process of education and may even present a starting point for a theory of a didactic picture as a subsystem of the theory of educational media.
Besides the problems of terminology, integration and a system the theory of a didactic picture has to solve also a number of problems connected with inner layout, differentiation and categorization of a didactic picture. The paper gives some criteria of classification and suggests introducing new parameters — the degree of schematization, stylization and typization.
The theory of a didactic picture should also include aesthetic aspect of creating didactic pictures and, through a synthesis of didactic as well as aesthetic points of view, try to solve traditional problems of contents and forms of a didactic picture, of didactics and arts, and interaction between the pedagogue and the creator of a picture.
Besides pedagogical aspects an integral part of the problems connected with a didactic picture is also represented by psychological aspects. It would by illusory to formulate demands made on a didactic picture in abstraction from cognitive processes, first of all from those of visual perception in which a picture acquires a semantic content For the theory of a didactic picture a number of important facts can be drawn from present-day psychology of perception, particularly from Zintchenko’s conception of productive perception, visual thinking and, above all, visual education aimed at educational practice.
Of great importance are also cybernetic and semiotic aspects, application of the theory and methods of modelling, theory of information and communication and theory of signs to the theory of a didactic picture.
The main problem of a didactic picture consists in the validity of picture communication. The present paper gives two ways converging towards the same aim — higher validity of picture communication. One is aimed at educational practice towards a percipient of a didactic picture and represents the development of abilities of visual apperception and semantization, cultivation of human eye-sight in the system of visual education. The other is aimed at exact investigation into the problems of a didactic picture, its creation as well as perception in order to verify and objectivize the process of sign-creation.
With regard to present-day objectives of pedagogy, present-day knowledge and its prospects as well as a most important role played by visual viewing the constitution of the theory of a didactic picture appears to be a task of the utmost importance.