(CZ) K otázkám umělecké tvorby v obsahu vzdělání
(EN) On questions of artistic creation in the content of education
Autor / Author: Chaloupka, O.
Klíčová slova / Key words:
Research into this problem is one the assignements of the Plan of Basic Research by the Comenius Pedagogical Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, devoted to the content of education and its effect on the development of a socialist personality. At the very beginning of his study the authors points out that this general problem becomes particularly topical as regards questions of artistic creation in the content of education and these questions come up against many unclarified points.
The author proceeds from a breeder analysis of the conception of the content of education and the differentiation between the term “content of education” and "curriculum”. He demonstrates how the conception of the content of education as well as that of the curriculum combines with the conception of the goal of the educational process, and simultaneously, how the content of education in presentday Marxist pedagogy is being extended by the fact that it brings up to date the socializing aspects of education, the significance of education for the overall formation and development of personality. In the second part the author deals with the question of mastering artistic creation as a component of the educational level attained. Taking the development of aesthetic education as an example he shows how artistic creation was made one-sidedly intellectually objective at first so that its emotional effect was lost. In justified reaction to such a state, the author points out, aesthetic education emphasizes the emotional, enjoyable effect of artistic creation, and mentions the significance this has for the formation of an aesthetic attitude to art. He draws attention, however, to the danger of the other one-sidedness resulting form the enjoyment of a work of art being made excessively emotional. The process of mastering a work of art is thereby deprived of the integrity of man’s mental activities and can be isolated from them, which may result in imparing the continuity with the overall educational level of the personality.
This continuity is dealt with in part three, where the author asks the question as to the sense of artistic creation in the content of education. He states that the content of education is not a changeless category but is conditioned socially and historically. He sets forth the desicive components of the content of education and points out that in Marxist pedagogy the present-day conception of the content of education is very comprehensive. Education is expected to provide not only professional training, but also to support broader ideological, social and world-outlook guidance of people, to provide them with the necessary base for their own self-realization in life, for the creation of their own value patterns, life aspirations and projects. From this point of view the author distinguishes the fact becoming the content of education according to the meanings they involve. He shows that some facts involve straight meanings which are labelled as denotative and which are mastered as soon as the facts themselves are mastered, e. g. equation in mathematics, chemical formulae and the like. The second group of facts is connected with meanings which do interpret facts but which are generally shared, e. g. pieces of knowledge in history about a certain historical period, event and the like. The third group is formed by the acquisition of knowledge ot those facts where the meaning is the interpretation of stratified communication, where it is labelled as connotation and arises as the meaning of a meaning. The author points out that this group includes, for instance, the mastering of complex ethical notions, significance of human actions, patriotism, internationalism, social truths and the like. He states that it is just these meanings that are very difficult to communicated in the logical language of science while a work of art is imparted by the process of penetrating to the knowledge of the meaningful subprocess of penetrating to the knowledge of the meaningful substance of a phenomenon, its relationship, properties and impact. The author shows how, in the present as well as prospective conceptions of education for the formation and development of personality, it is just these contents that are important, it being impossible for education to fulfil its social function without them. And it is just from viewpoint of thé social function of education, which has a developing and creative character, that the author regards the presence of artistic creation in the content of education as fully organic.
In conclusion the author says that such a view of artistic creation in the content of education will also newly raise the question of its selection in the educational systems, which must be guided not by the aspects systems of arts and science disciplines but by the aspects of the development of personality. This aspect will also make it possible for artistic creation not to be isolated from educational contents by being mastered only through personal experience, but it will make it possible for its mastering to become an integral part of the educational level, felt also from people’s subjective viewpoint as fully useful in their lives.
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