The developing of cognition of nursery school children is connected with a number uf gnoseological, didactic, and pedagogical problems. The author, who worked as a nursery school teacher, and later on as an expert at the Pedagogical Research Institute, describes the research, with what methods and to what extent children’s knowledge and understanding can be successfully devijloped with regard to the nhildrens’s age. In her research she proceeded from the basic principle that with a child of pre-school age the process of cognition goes on correctly only if during this process proper methods are used, suited to the degree of psychic development of the child. In the pre-school period it Is the method of active, inmediate perception of phenomena and their inter-connection in the process of imparting knowledge, and the method of didactic play when fixing, classifying and deepening this knowledge. The author worked with several classes of Prague nursery schools and carried out a direct experiment with thirty children of five to six years of age. After a test of Iheir basic knowledge about the phenomena chosen (this test revealed in many f.ases an absolute lack of the children’s experience and knowledge about the nearest plienomena) she divided the research schools Into three main types, in each of which she directed the work of the teacher as well as the experiment itself differently according to a hypnosis laid down beforehand. In finding out the result of the research the same method was used at all these schools. The result of the research justified the correctness of the original hypothesis.
The author does not believe that the results of her reserch can be fully generalized or considered as final in the field of research Into the development of children’s cognition; she Is convinced, however, that it will be possible to make use of hef experience from this research for further work In the field of developing children ’s cognition. In addition. It will be possible to make use of the experience from the methods of research, which Is rather rare both In the field of pre-school education and in the field of educational practice at the nursery school.