The author gives in this article a preliminary formulation of some theoretical and practical questions which will have to be solved in connection with the reform of the general educational school.
He proceeds from the aim of communist education, which is a universally developed personality. This aim Is of an objective character. It results from the needs of socialist and communist society and its focal point is the removal of any substantial difference between mental and manual work under socialism and communism.
This aim has its consequences in the conception of the content of upbringing and education, it requires certain conditions and means. Both the content and the mutual relationship of general, polytechnical and vocational education are changed. Individual and age differences among children must be taken into account. Upbringing and education is realized not only by teaching general educational subjects, but also by work instruction, by teaching productive, generally useful work. Children’s activities, work, their own independent work, acquire a significant role.
These findings must be made use of, above all, In the conception of basic education. The basic Nine-Year School, therefore, compared with the existing Eight-Year School, has the following tasks:
1. To provide a deeper and more complete basic general education.
2. To give all the youth basic polytechnical preparation, to prepare the youth for work In production.
3. To go into greater depth when handling the questions of ethical, aesthetic and physical education.
4. To look after the development of personal interests and abilities of the pupils and guide them to a correct choice of occupation.
5. To do away with the overburdening of children and to create more favourable conditions for their all-round physical and mental development.
All these tasks are dealt with in detail In the article, and the author comes to the conclusion that the basic school is a general educational working polytechnical school and its extent and character correspond to an incomplete secondary school.
Then the author gôes on to discuss the concept of complete secondary education at the secondary general educational school with instruction In productive labour. This Is understood as the unity of general, polytechnical and vocational education. He defines the character of the basic preparation for occupation in some branch of national economy and culture, and characterizes some subjects, especially' their generalizing theoretical conclusions in the highest form of the secondary school.
In conclusion, he makes some suggestions for further theoretical elaboration of these questions and for their research at experimental schools.