Besides Czech, Polish and German scholars, Russian scholars have also acquired great merits in the investigation and popularization of the work of Comenius. As early as the sixties of the 18th century Orbis Pictus was translated into Russian and about the end of the 18th century Comenius' ideas wera used also in the organization of Russian schools. By the end of the 17th century Petrograd had become a centre of Comeniological work and then significant works appeared, e. g. those of Mizhuyev, Kartsev, Tupikov, Yestrebov, Obraztsov, Lavrov, Kolubovski and others. Soviet pedagogues in evaluating Comenius apply Marxist- Leninist viewpoints, while continuing in the best traditions of their predecessors. In the Soviet Union many of Comenius* works have been translated and important works about Comenius have been written.
Education and instruction are historical categories. In evaluating Comenius’ work, historical conditions under which it arose must be taken into account. Pedagogical science is to analyse contemporary didactics and those of Comenius and to show which of his ideas have remained valid until today.
Out of the didactic principles nowadays distinguished by Soviet pedagogy, seven were basically outlined by Comenius already. 1. The principle of suitability in Comenius' demand that the content and the extent of the subject-matter should be in harmony with the pupils’ abili!:y to understand. 2. The principle of proper sequence in the demand that the subject-matter should be explained in a logical arrangement, proceeding from the easy to the difficult, from the simple to the complex, from the known to the unknown. The principle of intuitiveness in the demand that the pupil should get to know the objects he is learning about by his senses. But in the spirit of sensualism Comenius overestimates sensual Intuitiveness. 3. The principle of consciousness and activity of pupils in the demand that the pupil should really grasp the subject-matter and be active in a creative way during the lesson. 4. The principle of durability and soundness of the acquired knowledge in the demand that the pupils should learn above all the most essential things which can provide a basis for acquiring further knowledge; also in the demand for a cons!:ant revision of the subject-matter already covered. 5. The principle of connecting theory with practice was at least hinted at by Comenius in tho demand that teaching should be connected with life. 6. The principle of individual approach to pupils was expressed in Comenius' demand that the teacher should take into account individual characteristics of each child.
Comenius' ideas about the organization of the lesson, about lesson-planning, which subjec-s are to be taught, what should be the content of subject-matter and how textbooks are to be arranged, remain timely even today.
It would not be right to seek in Comenius’ writings for a solution of present-day pedagogical problems, but creative utilization and further development of his ideas may contribute to their solution.