(CZ) Karel Slavoj Amerling - buditel a pedagog
(EN) K. S. Amerling - National Revivalist and Pedagogue
Autor / Author: Dýma, M.
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This study deals with Karel Slavoj Amerling, a Czech national revivalist and pedagogue, wherein an attempt is being made to include him in the society of the Czech National Revival and to evaluate his contribution to the development of the Czech pedagogy. It shows the connection of Am erling’s pedagogy with his patriotism as well as with his appurtenance to the liberal bourgeoisie of an oppressed nation. Hence Am erling’s pedagogical theory and practice draws some progressive features, especially sensualism, democratism, and its becoming a national pedagogy. Its aim was to improve, by means of education, the general cultural level of the Czech people so as to prepare them for the competitive struggle with the more advanced German bourgeoisie, and for the achievement of political independence. A t "Budeč" he is trying to build up by means of self-help a new educational system, and, above all, to organize supplementary adult education, especially for the guidance of teachers, in order to acquaint them with new teaching methods.
In the revolutionary year 1848 Amerling puts forward a proposal for the organisation of a uniform school, together with an outline of its curriculum, the basis of which is material instruction. In the period of reaction following the revolution of 1848, when it was possible only to develop the inner content of the uniform school, Amerling develops ’’material instruction” . It is in the 19th century the first attempt in our country at a curriculum based on material sujects. In Amerling’s material instruction there are strong features of sensualism, whereby Amerling follows up on Comenius, and his pedagogics assume a progressive character.
In elaborating material instruction Amerling deals with some fundamental d idactic problems. In handling the problem of basic and extended subject-m atter he has no objective criteria for selecting basic subject-matter, and therefore his selection thereof is subjective. In addition, Amerling deals with the problem of niotivating the subject-matter. He makes the child approach the subject-m atter by linking it up with the calendar of nature and society, whereby he facilitates the intuitiveness of the teaching process and its connection with life. His sh ortcoming lies in applying this motivation, suitable for a lower grade, also in higher grades, where the only correct starting point is a system of pieces of knowledge. Amerling promotes the principle of intuitiveness by his suggestions for making Qut teaching helps, for equipping schools with collections, for historical and geo- graphical research of our native country; and especially by his pictures he aims It making instuction illustrative. Thereby he follows up on Comenius.
In his practice Amerling did tackle the question of joining up individual parts of the subject-matter, but he failed both to outline the problem of concentration In theory, and to solve it in practice.
The significance of Amerling consists in his having given a stimulus to handling educational problems in the Czech society in the period of National Revival, problems which he himself handled rather practically than theoretically.
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