Following Marx and Engels, Lenin developed the scientific explanation of relationships between politics and education. Thus he contributed to the scientific fundamentals of socialist pedagogy being definitely worked out. While working on the scientific theory of political education, he revealed contexts concerning education as a whole. Lenin called attention to the difference between the political education of the working people and the political education of the youth. In case of the working people it is important to combine their participation in political life with consistent political schooling. In case of the youth it is important to bring school close to life. In political education it is essential to respect the unity of theory and practice. Lenin criticized the reformists and opportunists in the labour movement who divorced political schooling from political practice. By doing so, they narrowed the field of political education to political schooling alone. The same may happen in the political education of the youth: it happens when the school does not develop collective education, i. e. a movement for the creation of socialist relationships in the school. When such a movement does not take place, the pupils have nowhere to verify the conclusions drawn from their political instruction, they do not learn to interpret correctly the contradictions in political events and do not seek to elevate their school life to the level of ≫socialism≪. The practice of political education ought to be based on a scientific analysis of a concrete political and educational situation.