A legal basis for the development of teacher training within the higher education system was provided by the President of the Republic’s decree of October 27, 1945, on teacher training. By the Act of April 9, 1946, pedagogical faculties (colleges of education) were established at all Czech and Slovak universities. The Minister of Education in the 1945—1946 period was a representative of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Zdeněk Nejedly, who is sometimes referred to as the founder of pedagogical faculties. The idea of pedagogical faculties was a conception formed by O. Chlup. In the 1946—1950 period the pedagogical faculties provided education for nursery school teachers, primary school teachers, junior secondary school teachers, teachers at schools for children and young people requiring special educational treatment, and also teachers of certain subjects at senior secondary schools. In 1950 the training of nursery school teachers and primary school teachers was transferred to vocational schools set up within the secondary education system. In 1953 teacher training was removed from universities. Two-year pedagogical schools were established for the training of junior secondary school teachers, and four-year pedagogical schools for the training of senior secondary school teachers, both types of pedagogical schools remaining part of the higher education system. In 1959 the training of senior secondary school teachers was again fully taken over by the universities. In the 1959—1964 period teachers for all the nine years of the elementary school (i. e. primary and junior secondary school teachers) were trained at pedagogical institutes. A positive feature of these institutes was, above all, the return to the provision of higher education for primary school teachers. In the first years of their existence, however, their successful development was hampered by the wrong conception of the so-called common basis, according to which all students in the first two years were to follow courses preparing teachers for primary schools. Furthermore, it was necessary to overcome the idea that qualifications for teaching at junior secondary schools should prospectively be acquired in part time courses by candidates from among qualified primary school teachers. By the reform of 1964 pedagogical faculties were re-established at universities and, in addition, seven independent pedagogical faculties were established. Pedagogical faculties now provide training for elementary school teachers (i. e. primary and junior secondary school teachers) in full-time four year courses of study. Some pedagogical faculties prepare teachers for schools providing education for the youth requiring special treatment. Pedagogical faculties also provide part-time courses to help the staff of apprentice training schools acquire the necessary pedagogical qualifications. They also organise post-graduate studies for elementary school teachers. The cardinal problem of all institutions providing higher education for Czechoslovak teachers in the 1946—1976 period has been to elaborate the aims, the content and the media of teacher training. This task remains topical also for the coming period.