The first outline of the genesis of various kinds of methodological approach to the history of education, school systems and pedagogy in the Czech lands gives a brief appraisal of the period up to the year 1918 (the beginnings of Comeniology, Fr. J. Zoubek, G. A. Lindner and particularly F. Drtina and his philosophical and culturally pedagogical approach to the outstanding representatives of Czech as well as world pedagogy), development °f the historiography of pedagogy and school systems in the independent state in the years 1918—1938 (O. Kádner and his Development and Present-Day School System, O. Chlup and his Development of Pedagogical Ideas in Modern Times, J. Hendrich as a follower of the comeniological tradition) and concentrates above on the development after 1945, on an analysis of the causes of the progress and ^agnation of this branch of pedagogical sciences. Together with suggestions drawn in the works of the Soviet historian of pedagogy J. N. Medynskij, which helped to overcome some of the one-sided viewpoints of the German cultural and historical pedagogy and the pedagogy of values, the political, social as well as educational deformations were accompanied also by simplified forms of approach to the educational past, political ideology enforcing tendencies and an incorrect interpretation of party allegiance. The outline is supplemented by a survey of the main works dealing with individual periods of the development of pedagogy and school systems in the Czech lands as well as In Europe. In conclusion, problems of a methodological character are pointed out. These problems require further clarification, e. g. the subject of the history of education with regard to broader cultural surroundings, the relations of the history of education to pedagogical sciences on the one hand and to historical sciences on the other (we have in mind especially the history of educational institutions and the organization of the school system), the integration of national, European and universal values, the specificness of national education or the problem of the philosophy of national education and its history.