This study is a specimen of one chapter from a book to be published shortly: »Topical Theoretical Problems of Pedagogy« by a team of authors headed by J. Skalková. The author develops in it the ideas of the preceding chapter dealing with encyclopaedism and atomism in knowledge, which appears in the conception of subjects and their mutual relationship. He proceeds from the integrating tendencies, which are characteristic for the development of modern science, and points out the consequences this fact has for the conception of the selection of subject-matter and for the approach to, and the organization of, the teaching process in general. He finds that encyclopaedism in knowledge is being gradually overcome by a new approach to the selection of the subject-matter and atomism in knowledge is being overcome by the integrating tendencies in the teaching process. The author wants to contribute to the clarification of these tendencies by finding out how these tendencies have made themselves flet up to now in their various forms both in pedagogical theory and in school practice. In their variety and diversity (in terminology, too) the author is trying to differentiate basic trends in which these integrating tendencies have been felt and are still being felt. He distinguishes »whole« efforts in teaching (the starting point being whole and form psychology), concentration of teaching (he includes here also consolidation of teaching) and the attempts at structurization of the subject-matter and problem teaching (based on the modern theory of learning). It is characteristic of the development of these integrating tendencies, the author points out, that in the past they made themselves predominantly felt in teaching methods and the organizational forms of teaching. It is only in the subsequent development and especially at the present time that those tendencies have gradually prevailed in which tnbse factors are organically linked up also with the integration of the content of teaching. In conclusion of the study the author points out that the above-mentioned trends have been applied especially in the practice of the initial teaching stage. It is understandable that their application has always been in close connection with the basic conception of the content, the methods and the organization of instruction, with the psychological approach to the child, with questions of world outlook, and the like. Any failure of any of these conceptions when put in practice was due, as a rule, to the fact that they were made absolute and were regarded as a universal principle.