The author has focused his research on the collective education of pupils during their passage from the system of education carried out by one teacher (from the 1st to the 5th grade) to the system of educational work being carried out by several teachers (from the 6th to the 9th grade of the Basic School). He has laid down a working hypothesis that in this period an important part ought to be played by the pupils’ committee, before the new formmaster is able to start with individual educational influence. He has carried out his research at schools in Prague as well as in the country. For several years he has followed the collective education in the 5th as well as 6th grades, especially in certain characteristic periods (in the second half of the 5th grade, at the beginning of and throughout the 6th grade). He has concerned himself especially with the shaping of relationships among pupils and the position of the pupils’ committee in the class under the educational guidance of the pioneer leader and the formmaster. These situations are supplemented by an analysis of the research material. He comes to the conclusion that collective education of junior schoolchildren is successful if there is systematic work with the pupils’ committee. Under the conditions of education of 11 to 15 year old pupils by several teachers collective education meets with difficulties, resulting mainly from the variety of educational influences of the teachers concerned. The work with the pupils’ committee is the formmaster’s concern. Without his tactful guidance the committee does not fulfil its function in the collective. The author points out suitable opportunities for educational work with the pupils’ committee as early as the lowest grades of the Primary School.