Demands for the reform of school have a history of their own. They are articulated more sharply with the transition of developed countries to the so-called new knowledge- based economy. A corrective is however essential to ensure an anthropological counterpoise in education. It is from this perspective that the characteristics of school reforms in the European Union are presented and the key themes of changes that Czech schools should undergo in near future are characterized. However, the objectives laid out cannot be fully realized if a personal approach to pupils/students is not taken into account and if they are not given complex educational care. Yet, this assumes a new approach towards teachers’ competence and responsibility. Teachers should obtain complex qualification as leading agents in the reform of school.