(CZ) Hra a filosofie
(EN) The game and philosophy
Autor / Author: Hogenová, A.
Klíčová slova / Key words: transcendující význam hry, protencionalita a retencionalita ve hře, hra a kreativita
Přehled filosofických úvah týkajících se fenoménu „hra“ s akcentem na heideggerovské, husserlovské a patočkovské souvislosti.
The article predominantly presents the phenomenon of a game in ontological, gnoseological, ontic, existencial, axiological and other contexts. „The game“ does not play the role of a means to education, entertainment or another pragmatic purpose only, but it also becomes an ontological principle of cosmic powers, namely in the form seen in works of Patočka, Husserl, Heidegger and others. In particular, connections to temporality, contingency, the problem of horizons, the logos, technology, creativity, truth and validity, existence, the world as a whole etc. are present. This article deals mainly with the phenomenological aspect. The phenomenon o f the game is also developed by the game’s means, ie. the motives intertwine showing their contiguity, a more profound closeness under the surface, which peters out under the weight of concrete facts when a standard approach is used. The game has one especially important function - it opens the way to non-intentional contexts, horizons, unities, transcendencies, briefly - the game has a transcending function. The unities we are part of are made present and actual, they are lived through very intensively. The game serves the individual to change, enrich and cultivate. The adjustment (Stimmung in German) is a very important part of life‘s movement, man „concretes“ with his environment, he “takes roots“. This adjustment can also be conceived as a game. The game always provides an access to horizons which are essential for a human life and which are not transmissible by the subject-object relating and process. The context, the horizon cannot be pointed at (digitally) and measured. The context, horizon, is unmeasurable, it is not conceivable empirically, it does not have the properties of a spacio-temporal thing which would be a clear object. The game phenomenalizes something which is essential for the human community, it reveals contexts, horizons which found a bundle made o f much more profound roots than the extenalized bundle of, for instance, legal links or others. It contains the significant element of freedom, because a game must always start at the beginning, which cannot be copied, ie. it must start from a beginning which is absolutely original, ungovemed by man. Nobody can know how the game is going to develop, the conditions in which the game is going to develop originally can only be prepared. Laying out our life is in fact a search for such latent questions which in turn are a key to the understanding of our Dasein. But every creativity, every essentially scientific activity represents a search for these coiled questions, with great seriousness, a seriousness that can even be claimed to involve the sense of the whole life. We can see that the whole life can be understood as a search for a key hidden in answers by all life situations, aspects and conditioning of life not chosen by us. These are the places where the game and very serious life interlink, combine, and are very hard to separate from each other. Puerilism is a different matter - it emerges where serious things are involved which are solved by a non binding game or - on the contrary - where a non binding game changes into something where life itself can nearly be at stake.
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