(CZ) K pojetí zásady názornosti
(EN) A contribution to the concept of the priciple of the object teaching
Autor / Author: Kunovjánková, D.
Klíčová slova / Key words:
The article is a reaction on the contemporary requirement to develop the pupils’ abstract thinking and on the need to enlighten newly the requirement of the object teaching which is relevant to the former requirement.
The fact that in the didactics of Mathematics that principle had been lively discussed in the past already, and that in the connection with the requirement of the abstract thinking of pupils, makes it possible to presume that the positive results achieved in Mathematics can be exploited for the forming of such a conception of the object teaching, that will give any room for a discrepancy between the contemporary science and the teaching.
The author has created a complex conception of making use of the marxist gnozeology, pedagogics and psychology, and of the results of some psychologically- didactic experiments in confrontation with the positive results achieved in searching for the abstract thinking development of our learners in the teaching of Mathematics. She stated here a harmony, and on this base she presupposes that it is possible to apply this conception also in other teaching subjects. Besides other suggestions she introduces the following aspects of objective teaching;
1. Exploitation of a certain standard of empiric concepts achieved through the pupils’ life experience.
2. Organization of tiie problem teaching whose principles are to reveal and to discover.
2.1. When choosing appropriate activities with the purpose to reproduct the material conditions of the origin and development of the concepts being investigated (the genetic principle), and to form theoretical thinking through the analysis of concrete data, finding the substances of certain phenomena and solving the opposites.
2.2. To discover a new or an unknown quality of an object through solving a problem task.
2.3. To discover and solve problem situations in a text with the purpose of their revealing.
3. To make use of a mode! for the description of the reality which makes it possible to react on questions to which answers are not perceptible from the reality directly.
3.1. The natural language.
3.2. Other signs models (graphical).
3.3. Physical models.
4. Applying the practice in the final phase of the gnoseological process.
It is said in the conclusion of the article that the answer to the questions of the concept of the object teaching cannot be ever definite as this principle is relevant to the character of the science whose development is constant. At present Mathematics outruns other branches of science again, as it is not characterized by a growing absorbing of theories but in the contrary by strengthening the practical orientation of achievements in Mathematics. It is therefore possible that it will be Mathematics again which will anticipate the further development of the principle of objective teaching. In the connection with the start of the process of algorythmization the author thinks that all those items mentioned here will proceed the requirement of deeper interdisciplinary relation among all the school-subjects so as to prepare the pupils for using Mathematics, the calculation techniques including, and at the same time so as to make them discover how a further development of Mathematics is conditioned through the problems of other branches.
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