The aim of this work is to contribute to raising the standard of lesson analysis in order that the analysis may fulfil the tasks it has in school practice. The problems involved concern in fact all teachers, headmasters and their deputies, as well as inspectors; it is of particular importance for the preparation of future teachers in all types of pedagogical schools.
An analysis of a number of shortcomings that occur in practice (a superficial description of a teacher’s work, which involves a wrong and superficial appraisal of the teacher’s procedures, unilateral attention given to the outward and impressive aspect of the lesson, a hackneyed and craftsm an-like approach to teaching methods), leads to determining their common feature. The author believes that the main difficulty lies in the inadequate aptitude to see in the pedagogical process all that it really contains. It is a difficult task from the psychological point of view, for it actually means to pass all the way from a concrete phenomenon, an example, a single lesson, to find the general, the more abstract. And in the field of complicated pedagogical phenomena it is difficult to point out the general features and differentiate them from the concrete content. For the same reason the opposite way from theory to its practical application in individual cases is equally difficult. Especially fo r students the d ifficulty of finding the expression of theory in practice and realizing the connexion between the two is increased by their failure to realize the im portance and significance of many facts even when they are directly observing them.
In this work therefore an attempt is being made to indicate a way to a deeper analysis of lessons, namely on the basis of grasping the substance of the teaching process. In doing so the basic starting point must be seeing the teaching process as a mutual correlation between teaching, that is the teacher’s activity, and learning, that is the pupil’s activity. On the basis of individual examples from classroom practice the author is trying to give a more detailed clarification of some questions concerning tha analysis of lessons, namely in arousing interest in work, in the guidance of reception and form ation of ideas, in generalization, in consolidating knowledge, in the formation o f skills and habits, and in testing knowledge, skills and habits.
In conclusion the author draws attention to the necessity of a more profound solution of questions concerning the connexion o f pedagogical theory with practice, which are of utmost importance for the training of teachers of all grades.