(CZ) Jak žáci používají vědomostí o fysikálních zákonech při řešení textových úloh
(EN) How Pupils Use their Knowledge of Laws of Physics in Solving Textbook Problems
Autor / Author: Kotásek, J.
Klíčová slova / Key words:
The methods of teaching are dependent upon the specific features of the process during which the subject-matter is being mastered by the pupils. The author considers a detailed inquiry into these relations based on different kinds of subject- matter to be the foremost task of present-day experimental didactics. A general objective of the author’s research was to inquire into the problems involved in guiding the process of mastering the subject-mattei; by pupils of the 7th grade (i. e. 13 years old) when teaching certain laws of physics. In the work published here the author piays attention to how the pupils make use of their laiowledge of the laws of equilibrium and equality of work done by simple machines, when solving textbook assignments in physics. These assignments were specially designed for the purpose of this research so that the procedure in solving these assignments, both in written tests and individual oral testing, might enable the examiner to trace the pupils’ process of thinking.
1. The main reason for difficulties in solving problems of physics is the fact that pupils analyse the situation of the assignment without the analysis being guided by the respective knowledge. Therefore the teacher’s work in directing the process of solving assignments is to tend to make the pupil analysing the assignment continually actualize the respective knowledge.
2. Pupils actualize the knowledge of the law necessary for the solution of the problem in response to a straightforward question asked by the teacher more easily than if they are to recollect it as a result of the analysis of the problem alone. Howerer, the teacher’s guidance of the process of mastering is in the former case much less effective than in the latter.
3. Most of the assignments in physics used in everyday teaching practice do not lead the pupils to a simultaneous actualization of the formulation of the law and a concrete idea of the situation involved. Futhermore, the system of exercises does not result In forming a correlation between the two necessary components of the knowledge of laws. Consequently the verbal knowledge ôf the law is so often divorced from a concrete idea of the law. In view of making the knowledge usable in situations of everyday life it is necessary to seek such forms of assignments as would make the pupils actualize also concrete ideas.
4. The texts of assignments in which all the given data are to be used, lead pupils to mechanical operations with figures without any proper grasping of the situations involved in the assignments. If, however, in addition to the necessary data the assignments contain also some data unnecessary for the solution of the problem in question, most pupils are unable to solve them.
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