Teorie výchovy a vyučování Theory of Education and Instruction
(CZ) Vytváření a osvojování pojmu podmět (EN) Vytváření a osvojování pojmu podmět
Strana / Page: 536-580 Autor / Author: Procházková, J. Klíčová slova / Key words:
In her research work the author deals with the mastering of the grammatical concept of the subject. She regards the inquiry into this problem as one of the most important didactic questions, because concept analysis and research into laws governing the ways the pupils learn to master concepts, appear to be essential pre-requisites for making scientifically justified school-curriculum and textbooks. She deals with this question on the basis o f existing literature, and after presenting the problem, she mentioris the methods of her research. It concerns the 4th and the 5th grade of the Elementary Schools, where she tries, by observing classes at work, by analysing written works o f the pupils and by individual findings, to penetrate into the problems of how the concept of the subject is mastered. Her research is part o f a m ajor work, wherein an attempt is being made to follow the development of this concept from the 4th up to the 8th grade.
The author distinguishes- different levels in the conscious mastering of the concept of the grammatical subject. The results o f the research show that a great m ajority of the pupils have mastered the concept. But there appeared a difference in the quality of the acquired knowledge and some specific features in the way this concept has been mastered. E. g. the isolation of individual characteristics of the grammatical subject to a different degree and with different expressiveness by individual pupils (the mutual correlation between the semantic and grammatical aspect; isolated use of the question »w h at«; the knowledge of the subject being in the nominative and agreeing with the predicate is not made use of). But as the results show, these features are not unchangeable. With some pupils in the 4th grade there appear difficulties in the transition from the sphere o f the practical use of the language to the sphere o f grammatical analysis.
In the next stage of the research it will be necessary to check up in greater detail: firstly, on how much in the given quality of acquired knowledge the specific features of the child’s age make themselves felt and what quality of mastering the concept the pupils of that age can achieve; secondly, on what standard of knowledge they will achieve, if the teacher in his teaching method takes into account the facts repealed, and if he facilitates by his approach the necessary mental processes of the pupils and if he helps to overcome the expected dif * ficulties of abstract thinking.
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