(CZ) Vzdělávání učitelů pro primární školu (1. Stupeň) po 2. Světové válce v proměnách času (do r. 1989)
(EN) The Changing Education of Teachers for Primary School (1st level) from the End of the 2nd World War to 1989
Autor / Author: Uhlířová, J.
Klíčová slova / Key words: vývoj učitelského vzdělání pro 1. stupeň, vysokoškolská kvalifikace pro učitele, kurikulum přípravného vzdělání pro učitele 1. stupeň, instituce vzdělávající učitele, pedagogická fakulta, legislativa k učitelskému vzdělání
the development of teacher training for the 1“ grade of primary school, university degree for teachers, the curiculumfor the preparatory education for teachers of the 1“ grade of primary school, teacher training institutions, the Faculty of Education, teacher training legislation
Článek je příspěvkem k vývoji učitelského vzdělání, zvláště na 1. stupni ZŠ a zejména v kontextu pražské pedagogické fakulty. Vzdělávání učitelů 1. stupně ZŠ plasticky vystupuje napozadí kontextu celkové problematiky učitelského vzdělání v letech 1946-1989. Toto časové období je períodízováno; detailněji je věnována pozornost mezníkům vývoje učitelského vzdělání, jejich legislativním normám i kurikulu vzdělávání učitelů pro 1. stupeň ZŠ. Kurikulum je zde dokladem reálného naplnění vzdělávací politiky.
This text concerns the development of teacher training with special emphasis on primary school. The first part of the study subdivides the period in question into phases bounded by important historical milestones of change in teacher training. In each chronological phase more detailed attention is then paid to changes in the law and institutions, but above all the charac-teristic changes in teacher training resulting from them. The author concentrates partic-ularly on the chronological comparison of the university curriculum for pre-graduate teacher training for teaching of 1st level of primary school as a way of demonstrating both changes and the continuity of some elements of teacher training.
Campaigns to introduce university education for teachers at primary level was crowned both by Decree no. 132/1945, which made university qualifications compulsory for teachers at all levels of the Czechoslovak school system, and by Law no. 100 /1946 Sb., which was the basis for the founding of faculties of education. Subsequent development was not, however, as linear as one might have expected, but was a matter of oscillation between the high-school and university level, and in some respects regression, especially in the years 1950-1964,. Factors here included the social-political circumstances of the 1950s and the negative attitude of traditional universities faculties, which felt seriously threatened by changes.
In this context a major step backwards was the government resolution of the 30th of May 1950 which created pedagogic gymnasia (high schools), to which prepara-tory education for teachers of lower school grades was transferred, thus removing the education of these teacher categories (1st and 2nd level) from the university framework. Another tragic decision was the abolition of pedagogical (education) faculties (govern-ment decree no. 66/1953 Sb.). In later years it proved very difficult to reverse this step. The return to universities did not take place until the revival of the pedagogical faculties in 1964 (by a National Assembly decision no. 166/1964). The university level educa-tion of teachers was thus confirmed and has continued to the present day.
The comparison of university curricula over time in the second half of the text indi-cates the ratio between the general basis (in the 1970s and 80s this included ideological subjects), the specialist subject element, the educational psychological element and the practice element. Knowledge of special subject continued to take up the largest percentage, but the comparison confirms the rise of educational psychological training, which is the bearer of the quality of teaching. It was the pedagogical faculties that were largely responsible for this change.
In conclusion the text emphasises that the most stable and highest quality phases of the development of teacher training took place at the educational faculties, because it was here that theory of the teacher and teaching could be explored and deepened and ways found to meet the demand for teachers to be humanly cultivated and mature with a proper training in their specialist subject.
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