(CZ) Pedagogické názory N. K. Krupskej
(EN) Pedagogical Ideas of N. К. Krupskaya
Autor / Author: Mátej, J.
Klíčová slova / Key words:
On the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution the author devotes his study to the pedagogical ideas of a well-known Soviet educationist, N. K. Krupskaya (1869—1939). In the introductory part of the article the author points out that during her lifetime N. K. Krupskaya did a very creditable piece of work for Socialist pedagogy. Her pedagogical bequest is still living, most of her ideas are valid in Socialist pedagogy even now. In the second part of his study the author describes the life and work of N. K. Krupskaya from the time of her youth till the end of her life. What he particularly highlights in her work is the significance of her synthetic pedagogical work entitled “People’s Education and Democracy’’, which was published exactly sixty years ago. The third part of the article is devoted to Krupskaya’s views on family education and co-operation between school and family. The author underlines her demand for a correct family upbringing and for promoting the art of education among working people. In the fourth part attention is paid to Krupskaya’s views on pre-school education. He underlines her merits for constructing pre-school education facilities and for theoretically elaborating questions of collective education. As a significant place in Krupskaya’s pedagogical views was taken up by her ideas about school, the author writes about them, too, in a separate part of the article, and points out that they are identical with V. I. Lenin’s ideas about school. Another part of the study deals with Krupskaya’s views on work education and on vocational guidance as well as on aesthetic education and on education in youth organisations. N. K. Krupskaya paid great attention to the teacher, whom she regarded as the decisive factor in a Socialist school. She considered the teaching profession as one of the most responsible and most rewarding occupations. She put forward noteworthy demands regarding the moral, political, intellectual and pedagogicopsychological qualities of the teacher. The author pays due attention to Krupskaya’s work in the field of pedagogical history. Her attachment to the history of pedagogy can best be seen in her outstanding work “ People’s Education and Democracy”, in which she reviewed the development of the idea of work education in J. J. Rousseau, J. H. Pestalozzi, in the pedagogical proposals of the Convent, in R. Owen, and explained the contribution K. Marx made to the history of the development of these ideas by his teaching about polytechnical education. She also paid great attention to the study of pedagogical works by J. A. Comenius, K. D. Ushinsky and L. N. Tolstoy. In conclusions, the author evaluates N. K. Krupskaya’s pedagogical work and draws attention to its significance not only for Soviet pedagogy but also for all the countries which have chosen to follow the road to Socialism. On the occasion of the Great October Socialist Revolution Czechoslovak educationists undertake the pledge to remain faithful to the ideals of the Great October of the year 1917 as well as to the pedagogical bequest of the outstanding Marxist educationist, N. K. Krupskaya.
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