(CZ) Teorie učení a zvyšování účinnosti vyučování počátečnímu čtení
(EN) The Theory of Learning and Intensification of the Effectiveness of Teaching Elementary Reading
Autor / Author: Linhart, J., Turková, M.
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The authors are summing up the basic rules and principles of a new conception of teaching the human being, submitted by one of the authors in a recently published work (Linhart, 1982). They are elucidating the main principles of marxist psychology and their significance for their new theory of teaching (the principle of the unity of consciousness and diersity, etc.). On these basis they are elaborating the principle of reverberation as well as the approach pertaining to matters of process, activity and personality. They are analysing the laws of teaching as a psychic process, they are attempting to clarify the role of their internal contradictions and on the basis of their dialectic relations are substantiating the rise of the basic phases of human learning (see the relations between continuity and discontinuity, etc.). Four basic aspects of these processes are operating in mutual harmony: the aspect of recognition, motivation, performance and evaluation.
The process of the teaching of elementary reading and its four phases differ in individual cases. The less talented and neglected children not only need a longer time, but also more repetition of similar situations and direct help of the teacher (individual approach). In reading the first syllables it is absolutely necessary to warn against the reading of letters with a subsequent hearing structure; the teacher should consistently lead the child into the fourth phase of learning, to read the first syllables in a way that would become a general habit, i.e. through connected spelling to the reading of complete syllables. Only in this way the reading of syllables could become a general habit and could be understood properly. A lengthy stoddering is at variance with the basis laws of human learning.
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